An Invariable to Rotation Data Hiding Scheme for Semi-Fragile Blind Watermark

Khaldi Amine


An invariant to rotation watermarking approach is proposed for the purpose of improving the security of digital images. The proposed digital watermark approach is invariable to rotation and guarantees the integrity of the inserted mark. The size of the resulting image is identical to the original image and the process guarantees acceptable transparency. This approach evolves both in the frequency and the spatial domain. Specifically, the proposed scheme processes the JPEG images by adapting its structure to the frequency domain by modifying the DCT coefficients of the image. This scheme is also adaptable to BMP images by adjusting these parameters for an LSB modification of the colorimetric values of the image. Moreover, during the extraction, the structure of our scheme organizes itself according to the orientation of the processed image. Based on the experiment conducting with eight substitution processes, we concluded that the substitution of four bits gives a great capacity of insertion, while guaranteeing an acceptable transparency for the insertion of text. However, a substitution of one bit only is recommended for the insertion of an image. This reduces the capacity, but guarantees transparency of the watermarking process.


Digital Image; Digital Watermarking; Frequency Domain; Imperceptibility; Least Significant Bit Substitution; Robustness; Spatial Domain;

Full Text:



Md. Asikuzzaman, Md. Jahangir Alam, Andrew J. Lambert, and Mark R. Pickering, Robust DT CWT-Based DIBR 3D Video Watermarking Using Chrominance Embedding, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Volume: 18 , Issue: 9, pp 1733 – 1748, 2016.

Franco Frattolillo, Watermarking Protocols: Problems, Challenges and a Possible Solution, The Computer Journal, Volume: 58, Issue: 4, pp 944 – 960, 2015.

Arezou Soltani Panah, Ron Van Schyndel, Timos Sellis, and Elisa Bertino, On the Properties of Non-Media Digital Watermarking: A Review of State of the Art Techniques, IEEE Access, Volume: 4, pp 2670 – 2704, 2016.

Yang Yu, Min Lei, Xiaoming Liu, Zhiguo Qu, and Cheng Wang, Novel zero-watermarking scheme based on DWT-DCT,China Communications, Volume: 13 , Issue: 7, pp 122 – 126, 2016.

Amine Khaldi, Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange through Steganographied Images, Revista de Direito Estado e Telecomunicações, Volume 10, May 2018, Pages 147-160.

Dante Mújica-Vargas, José Jesús Rubio, Jean Marie Kinani, and Francisco J. Gallegos-Funes, An efficient nonlinear approach for removing fixed-value impulse noise from grayscale images, Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, Volume: 14, Issue 3, pp 617-633, 2018.

Jose de Jesus Rubio, Diana M. Vázquez, and Dante Mújica-Vargas, Acquisition system and approximation of brain signals, IET Science, Measurement & Technology, Volume: 7, No. 4, pp 232-239, 2013.

Nazir A. Loan, Nasir N. Hurrah, Shabir A. Parah, Jong Weon Lee, Javaid A. Sheikh, and G. Mohiuddin Bhat, Secure and Robust Digital Image Watermarking Using Coefficient Differencing and Chaotic Encryption, IEEE Access, Volume: 6, pp 19876 – 19897, 2018.

Dante Mújica-Vargas, Francisco J. Gallegos Funes, Jose de Jesus Rubio, and Jaime Pacheco, Impulsive noise filtering using a median redescending m-estimator, Intelligent Data Analysis, Volume: 21, No. 3, pp. 739-754, 2017.

Jose de Jesus Rubio, SOFMLS: online self-organizing fuzzy modified least-squares network, IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Volume: 17, No. 6, pp. 1296-1309, 2009.

Mehran Andalibi, and Damon M. Chandler, Digital Image Watermarking via Adaptive Logo Texturization, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Volume: 24, Issue: 12, pp 5060 – 5073, 2015.

F.Kahlessenane, A.Khaldi, and S.Euschi, A robust blind color image watermarking based on Fourier transform domain, Optik, Volume 208, April 2020.

Min-Jae Hwang, JeeSok Lee, MiSuk Lee, and Hong-Goo Kang, SVDBased Adaptive QIM Watermarking on Stereo Audio Signals, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Volume: 20, Issue: 1, pp 45 – 54, 2018.

Baharak Ahmaderaghi, Fatih Kurugollu, Jesus Martinez Del Rincon, and Ahmed Bouridane, Blind Image Watermark Detection Algorithm Based on Discrete Shearlet Transform Using Statistical Decision Theory, IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging, Volume: 4, Issue: 1, pp 46 – 59, 2018.

Amine Khaldi, A lossless blind image data hiding scheme for semifragile image watermark, International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics, 2020, DOI: 10.1504/IJCVR.2020.10029218.

Deepayan Bhowmik, Matthew Oakes, and Charith Abhayaratne, Visual Attention-Based Image Watermarking, IEEE Access, Volume: 4, pp 8002 – 8018, 2016.

Abdulaziz Shehab, Mohamed Elhoseny, Khan Muhammad, Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Po Yang, Haojun Huang, and Guolin Hou, Secure and Robust Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Medical Images, IEEE Access, Volume: 6, pp 10269 – 10278, 2018.

Amine Khaldi, Steganographic Techniques Classification According to Image Format, International Annals of Science, Volume 8, 2019, Pages 143-149.

Liancheng Zhang, Yazhou Kong, Yi Goo, Juwei Yan, and Zhenxing Wang, Survey on network flow watermarking: model, interferences, applications, technologies and security, IET Communications, Volume: 12, Issue: 14, pp 1639 – 1648, 2018.

A. Sengupta, and S. Bhadauria, Intellectual property core protection of control data flow graphs using robust watermarking during behavioural synthesis based on user resource constraint and loop unrolling factor, Electronics Letters, Volume: 52 , Issue: 6, pp 439 – 441, 2016.

Shuai Liu, Zheng Pan, and Houbing Song, Digital image watermarking method based on DCT and fractal encoding, IET Image Processing, Volume: 11 , Issue: 10, pp 815 – 821, 2017.

Ferda Ernawan and Muhammad Nomani Kabir, A Robust Image Watermarking Technique With an Optimal DCT-Psychovisual Threshold, IEEE Access, Volume: 6, pp 20464 – 20480, 2018.

Weiqing Wang, Junyong Ye, Tongqing Wang, and Weifu Wang, Reversible data hiding scheme based on significant-bit-difference expansion, IET Image Processing, Volume: 11 , Issue: 11, pp 1002 – 1014, 2017.

Abbas Najafipour; Abbas Babaee, and S. Mohammad Shahrtash, Comparing the trustworthiness of signal-to-noise ratio and peak signalto-noise ratio in processing noisy partial discharge signals, IET Science, Measurement & Technology, Volume: 7, Issue: 2, pp 112 – 118, 2013.

Zhenguo Gao, Danjie Chen, Wei Zhang, and Shaobin Cai, Colour image encryption algorithm using one-time key and FrFT, IET Image Processing, Volume: 12, Issue: 4, pp 472 – 478, 2018.

Jong-Uk Hou, Do-Gon Kim, and Heung-Kyu Lee, Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking for 3D Printed Model by Analyzing Layering Artifact, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Volume: 12, Issue: 11, pp 2712 – 2725, 2017.

Xiao-Long Liu, Chia-Chen Lin, and Shyan-Ming Yuan, Blind Dual Watermarking for Color Images’ Authentication and Copyright Protection, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Volume: 28 , Issue: 5, pp 1047 – 1055, 2018


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ISSN: 2180-1843

eISSN: 2289-8131