A 3D e-Commerce Applications Development Model: A Systematic Literature Review

Mahgoub Elradi, Rodziah Atan, Rusli Abdullah, Mohd. Hasan Selamat


Due to limitations of current e-commerce websites and today’s highly competitive e-commerce environment, businesses using Virtual Reality technologies to improve customers' interactivity, by providing shopping experiences with their products and services similar to the real-life shopping, are better recognized. In this paper, the key aspects of 3D e-commerce research areas are investigated by using a systematic literature review approach. In the review, research areas such as design, trust, marketing, Augmented Reality and product presentation, business practices, interface quality, shopping experience and behavior as well as consumer learning along with other related issues are identified and discussed. A conceptual model is then proposed to highlight and provide insights for future research on how to develop a business model in 3D e-commerce environments.


e-Commerce; 3D e-Commerce; SLR; Business Model Development; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality;

Full Text:




Turban, E., King, D., Lee, J., T. Liang, D. Turban. 2015. Social Commerce: Foundations, Social Marketing, and Advertising, Electronic Commerce. Springer International Publishing. 309-365.

Nassiri, N. 2008. Increasing Trust through the Use of 3D e-commerce Environment. Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC'08), Fortaleza,Brazil.16-20 March 2008.1463-1466.

Jin S., Bolebruch J.. 2009. Avatar-Based Advertising In Second Life: The Role Of Presence And Attractiveness Of Virtual Spokespersons.Journal of Interactive Advertising,vol.10(1): 51-60.

Lau K. W., Lee P. Y., Lau H. F.. 2014. Shopping Experience 2.0: An Exploration of How Consumers are shopping in an Immersive Virtual Reality. Advances in Economics and Business. 2(2): 92-99.

Kim H., Suh K., Lee U.. 2013. Effects Of Collaborative Online Shopping On Shopping Experience Through Social And Relational Perspectivese. Information Management.50(4): 169-180.

Fang H., Zhang J., Sensory M., N. Magnenant-Thalmann. 2014. Reputation Mechanism For E-Commerce In Virtual Reality Environments. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. 13(6): 409-422.

Guo G., Zhang J., Thalmann D. 2014. Leveraging Prior Ratings For Recommender Systems In E-Commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. 13(6): 440-455.

Shin D., Shin Y.. 2011. Consumers' Trust In Virtual Mall Shopping: The Role Of Social Presence And Perceived Security. International Journal of Human-computer Interaction.27(5): 450-475.

Junfeng Y., Xiaobiao X., Fengchun L., Liniao Z., Guoli J., Cheng H.. 2013. Online Customer Interactive Web3D E-Commerce Platform NARKii.com. Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences. 7(1): 427-432

Wang Y., Yeh Y. C., Wang Y., Xie M.. 2013. The Relationships among Presentation Mode, Product Type, Consumers' Product Knowledge, and Consumers' Purchase Intention in the E-commerce Environment. IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference. Kyoto, Japan. 22-26 July 2013. 282-283.


Chittaro L., Ranon R.. 2007. Web3D Technologies In Learning, Education And Training: Motivations, Issues, Opportunities.Computers & Education. 49(1): 3-18.

http:// www.secondlife.com.

Chittaro L., Ranon R.. 2007. Adaptive 3D Web sites. The Adaptive Web. 433-462.

Lau H., Lau K., Kan C.. 2013. The Future of Virtual Environments: The Development of Virtual Technology. Computer Science and Information Technology. 1(1): 41-50.

Kitchenham B. A., Dybe T., Jorgensen M.. 2004. Evidence-Based Software Engineering. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Software Engineering(ICSE'04), IEEE Computer Society. Washington DC, USA. 23-28 May 2004. 273-281.

Kitchenham B., Brereton O., Budgen D., Turne M., Bailey J., Linkman S., Systematic Literature Review In Software Engineering –A Systematic Literature Review,Information and Software Technology, vol. 51.1, pp. 7-15, 2009.



Pan Z., Chen T., Zhang M., Xu B.. 2009. Virtual Presentation And Customization Of Product Based On Internet. International Journal of CAD/CAM. 4(1).

Xue L., Wang H., Li J. 2011. The Study of Laying out Virtual Production Based on Cult3D. I. J. Education and Management Engineering. 1: 58-62.

Zhang W.. 2010. Integrated Web Architecture Based On Web3D, Flex and SSH. Journal of Software Engineering and Application. 3(01): 73-80.

Papadopoulou P.. 2007. Applying Virtual Reality For Trust-Building E-Commerce Environment. Virtual Reality. 11(2-3): 107-127.

Teoh K., Cyril E.. 2008. The Role of Presence and Para Social Presence on Trust in Online Virtual Electronic Commerce. Journal of Applied Sciences. 16(8): 2834-2842.

Qiu L., Benbasat I.. 2005. Online Consumer Trust And Live Help Interfaces: The Effects Of Text-To-Speech Voice And Three Dimensional Avatars. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. 19(1): 75-94.

Nah F., Eschenbrenner B., Dewester D.. 2011. Enhancing Brand Equity through Flow and Telepresence: A Comparison of 2D And 3D Virtual Worlds. MIS Quarterly.35(3):731-747.

Park S., Nah F.. 2008. Virtual Worlds Affordances: Enhancing Brand Value. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research. 1(2): 1-18.

Jin S., Bolebruch J.. 2009. Avatar-based advertising in Second Life: The Role Of Presence And Attractiveness Of Virtual Spokespersons.Journal of Interactive Advertising.10(1):51-60.

Varajão J., Morgado L.. 2012. Potential Of Virtual Worlds For Marketing Tests Of Product Prototypes. Journal of the Textile Institute. 103(9). 960-967.

Bauer H., Neumann M., Haber T., Mader R.. 2006. Virtual sales agents. American Marketing Association Winter Educators' Conference on Marketing Theory and Applications (AMA). Chicago, USA. 17-20 February 2006. 17: 226-231.

Kohler T., Matzler K., Fu J.. 2009. Avatar-Based Innovation: Using Virtual Worlds For Real-World Innovations. Technovation. 129: 395-407.

Suh K., Lee Y.. 2005. The Effects Of Virtual Reality On Consumer Learning: An empirical investigation. MIS Quarterly. 29(4): 673-697.

Chen K.. 2013. Gesture-Based Human Machine Interface: A Case Study Comparing the Realism of Furniture Products in E-commerce. HCI International 2013-Posters' Extended Abstracts, Springer. 675-679.

Mackenize K., S. Buckby, H. Irvine. 2009. A Framework For Evaluating Business Lead Users' Virtual Reality Innovation in Second Life. Electronic Commerce Research. 9:183-202.

Arakji R., Lang K.. 2008. Avatar Business Value Analysis: A Method for the Evaluation Of Business Value Creation In Virtual Commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research.9(3): 207-218.

MacInnes I.. 2006. Property Rights, Legal Issues, And Business Models In Virtual World Communities. Electronic Commerce Research. 6: 39-56.

Tran M., Minocha S., Roberts D., Laing A., Langdridge D.. 2011. Investigating Affordances Of Virtual World B2C E-Commerce. Proceedings of the 25th BCS Conference on Human-ComputerInteraction, British Computer Society. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK. 4-8 July 2011. 520-525.

Scarle et. al. 2012. E-commerce Transactions In A Virtual Environment: Virtual Transactions. Electronic Commerce Research. 12(3): 379-407.

Phosaard S., Rattanawicha P.. 2010. Quality Factors for Online Virtual Reality Commerce Interface. Proceedings of the International Conference on IT Application and Management (ITAM-IV), 2010, Bangkok, Thailand.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ISSN: 2180-1843

eISSN: 2289-8131