Low Complexity Security Algorithm for CPS / IoT Networks

R. Upadhyay, S. S. Baghel, S. Singh, A. Soni, U. R. Bhatt


Due to its noisy nature, wireless channel plays a dominant role in deciding the performance of data communication between the smart objects in the cyberphysical systems (CPS) or the internet of things (IoT). Open and heterogeneous nature of these networks makes them susceptible to vulnerable attacks. So, to keep up the confidentiality and integrity of the transmitted data against the adversaries, it should be secured before transmission. However, issues such as power efficiency, low computational complexity need to be considered when designing security algorithms for CPS/IoT networks. Traditional encryption algorithms, such as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) can be used for security purpose, but they do not satisfy power and complexity criteria as per CPS/IOT networks requirements. Moreover, they exhibit poor bit error ratio (BER) performance in a noisy wireless channel. This paper presents a modified security algorithm, AES-P, with X-OR mapping on AES to make them suitable for CPS/IoT applications. Simulation and analysis of the proposed algorithm showed that its power consumption and complexity are reduced as compared to traditional AES. It also performed better in the wireless channel, while maintaining the required security level satisfied by Avalanche effect.


Advanced Encryption System; Bit Error Rate; Internet of Things Security; Physical Layer Security;

Full Text:



Dhananjay, S., et al.: ‘Secure Layer Based Architecture for Internet of Things' IEEE world forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), IEEE, 2015, pp. 1-12.

Aylin, Y.: ‘Wireless physical layer security: Lessons learned from information theory’ Proc. of the IEEE, 2015,103 (10), pp.1814-1824.

Reiter Gil: ‘Wireless Connectivity for the Internet of Things.' Texas Instruments, White Paper, June 2014, pp. 1-12.

Soni, A., Upadhyay, R., Jain, A.: ‘Internet of Things & Wireless Physical Layer Security: A Survey,' Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Communication Networking and Internet Security, Vijayawada, November 2016, pp. 115-123

Qian, X., et al.: ‘Security enhancement for IoT communication Exposed to Eavesdropper with uncertain locations’, IEEE Access, 2016, pp.1-12.

Isha, et al.: ‘Analysis of Lightweight Cryptographic Solutions for Internet of Things’, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2016 9(28), pp-1-7.

K. D. Muthavhine, M. Sumbwanyambe: ‘An analysis and a comparative study of cryptographic algorithms used on the Internet of Things (IoT) based on avalanche effect’, Int. Conf. on Information & Comm. Tech., 2018

Karsanbhai R, Grace, M.: ‘AES Algorithm for Secured Wireless Communication', Conf. on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, May 2011, pp. 13-14

Jia, C., et al.: “An Analysis of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) Security against Differential Cryptanalysis,” Wuhan University Journal of Natural Science, 13, (6)2008, pp. 697- 701

Kulkarni S, et al.: ‘ Internet of Things (IoT) Security’. Int. Conf. on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIAcom), IEEE, Feb. 2016, pp 821-824.

Khan R., et al.: ‘Future Internet: The Internet of Things architecture, possible applications, and key challenges'. Proc. 10th Int. Conf.. FIT, Islamabad, Dec. 2012, pp. 257-260.

Rajshekhar P., Mangalam H.: ‘Efficient FPGA Implementation of AES 128 Bit for IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMax Standards’, Scientific Research Publishing, Circuits and System, 2016, 7, pp. 371-380

Goswami M., Kanojiya S.: ‘High-Performance FPGAImplementation of AES Algorithm with 128-bit keys' Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. Advances Computing Comm., vol 1, Himarpur, India, 2011, pp. 281- 286

‘DDoS Quick Guide- National Cybersecurity and communication integration', TLP: WHITE, 29 January, 2014.

Mukherjee A.: ‘Physical-Layer Security in the Internet of Things: Sensing and Communication Confidentiality under Resource constraint'. Proc. IEEE, Oct. 2015,103, (10), pp. 1747-1761.

Shilparani, et al.: ‘High Performance of AES using XOR Based Mixed Column’, Int. Journal of Ethics in Engineering & Management Education, May 2014, 1,(5), pp. 123-126.

B. R. Gangadari and S. Rafi Ahamed, "Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications," in Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 177-183, 9 2016.

W. Yu and S. Köse, "A Lightweight Masked AES Implementation for Securing IoT Against CPA Attacks," in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 2934- 2944, Nov. 2017.

K. Tsai, Y. Huang, F. Leu, I. You, Y. Huang and C. Tsai, "AES-128 Based Secure Low Power Communication for LoRaWAN IoT Environments," in IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 45325-45334, 2018.

B. Li and Y. Pei, "Measures for error avalanche and energy avalanche effect in secure wireless fieldbus systems," in China Communications, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 202-214, Feb. 2019.

Alam T, Benaida M.: ‘The Role of Cloud-MANET Framework in the Internet of Things (IoT)’. International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE). 2018;14(12):97-111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v14i12.8338

Alam, Tanweer. (2018) ‘A reliable framework for communication ininternet of smart devices using IEEE 802.15.4.’ ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 13(10), 3378-3387.

Alam T, Benaida M.: ‘CICS: Cloud–Internet Communication Security Framework for the Internet of Smart Devices.’ International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM). 2018 Nov 1;12(6):74-84.

Alam, T., Rababah, B.: ‘Convergence of MANET inCommunication among Smart Devices in IoT’, International Journal ofWireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT), Vol.9, No.2, pp. 1-10, 2019.

Alam, T.: “Blockchain and its Role in the Internet of Things (IoT)”, International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology, pp. 151-157, 2019.

William Stalling: ‘Cryptography and Network Security’, Principle & Practices, 2012, (4th edn.), pp-289-320.

Wang T., et.al: ‘Empirical Network Performance Analysis on IEEE 802.11g with different Protocols and Signal to Noise Ratio’, IEEE, 2005, pp. 7803-9019

H. Shi, Y. Deng, Y.Guan, ‘Analysis of Avalanche Effect of the AES S-box’, Int. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic Commerce, Sep2011.

Farshid, H.: ‘Analysis of Avalanche Effect on Advanced Encryption Standard by using dynamic S-box depends on round key', Int. Conf. on Computational Science and Technology, May 2014, 8

Ariffin, S., Yusof, N.: ‘Randomness analysis on 3D-AES block cipher’, Int.Conf. on Natural Computation, Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (ICNC-FSKD), Jul 2017

Soni, A.. Upadhyay, R., Kumar, A.: ‘Wireless physical layer key generation with improved bit disagreement for the internet of things using moving window averaging’ Physical Communication, Elsevier April 2019, pp. 249-258


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ISSN: 2180-1843

eISSN: 2289-8131