Highly Responsive CO2 Detection by an Improved & Compact Gas Sensor Using Mid-IR Spectroscopy

Mohd Rashidi Salim, Mohd Haniff Ibrahim, Asrul Izam Azmi, Muhammad Yusof Mohd Noor, Ahmad Sharmi Abdullah, Nor Hafizah Ngajikin, Hadi Manap, Gerard Dooly, Elfed Lewis


An improved and compact gas sensor using midinfrared spectroscopy for highly responsive Carbon Dioxide (CO2) detection is presented. The sensing principle is based on open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. The improved reflective structure of optical gas sensor consists of low cost and compact components. Several gas cell configuration which includes SISO, 2-MISO, 4-MISO and 8- MISO were simulated using ZEMAX®12 using non-sequential ray tracing technique to get the optimum radius of the reflective curved surface. Sensitivity analysis has shown that the optimised structure of 4-MISO yields the highest sensitivity and power efficiency of -0.2895%-1 and 12.298% respectively. The developed gas sensing system using the optimised gas cell has shown the capability of accurately detecting CO2 concentration between 1.5% and 5.8% with no cross-sensitivity with other gases present in the gas cell. The newly developed CO2 sensor exhibits high responsivity with the recorded rise time and fall time of less than 1 second respectively.


Carbon Dioxide Sensor; Mid-Infrared; Responsivity; Spectroscopy;

Full Text:



Kutscher, C. (2006). Automotive Emissions and the Greenhouse Effect. July/August.

Hansen, J., Johnson. D., Lacis, A., Lebedeff, S., Lee, P., Rind, D., and Russell, G. (1981). Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Science. 213 (4511), 957-966.

How the World Passed a Carbon Threshold and Why It Matters, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Retrieved on August 31, 2017 from https://e360.yale.edu/features/how-the-world-passed-acarbon-threshold-400ppm-and-why-it-matters

IEA (International Energy Agency) (2013), Redrawing the ClimateEnergy Map: World Energy Outlook Special Report, OECD/IEA–CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2014, OECD/IEA, Paris.

Energy and Climate Change - World Energy Outlook Special Report. Retrieved on August 31, 2017, from https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WEO20 15SpecialReportonEnergyandClimateChange.pdf

Blunt, M., Fayers, F. J., and Orr, F. M. (1993). Carbon Dioxide in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Energy Conversion and Management. 34(9), 1197-1204.

Omae, I. (2012). Recent Developments in Carbon Dioxide Utilization for the Production of Organic Chemicals. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 256(13 14), 1384-1405.

Rao, A. G., Reddy, T. S., Prakash, S. S., Vanajakshi, J., Joseph, J., and Sarma, P. N. (2007). pH Regulation of Alkaline Wastewater with Carbon Dioxide: A Case Study of Treatment of Brewery Wastewater in UASB Reactor Coupled with Absorber. Bioresource Technology. 98(11), 2131-2136.

Obert, R., and Dave B. C. (1999). Enzymatic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol: Enhanced Methanol Production in Silica Sol-Gel Matrices. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 121(51), 12192- 12193.

Freund, P., Bachu, S., Simbeck, D., Kelly, Thambimuthu, and Gupta, M. (2013). Properties of CO2 and Carbon-Based Fuels. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.

Hodgkinson, J., Smith, R., Ho, W. O., Saffell, J. R., & Tatam, R. P. (2013). Non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) measurement of carbon dioxide at 4.2 μm in a compact and optically efficient sensor. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 186, 580-588.

Dooly, G. (2008). On-Board Monitoring of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Using an Ultraviolet Optical Fibre Based Sensor. Doctor Philosophy. University of Limerick, Ireland.

Chamber, P. (2005). A Study of a Correlation Spectroscopy Gad Detection Method. Doctor Philosophy, University of Southampton, U.K.

Stewart, G., Jin, W., & Culshaw, B. (1997). Prospects for fibre-optic evanescent-field gas sensors using absorption in the nearinfrared. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 38(1-3), 42-47.

Spectralcalc.com High-Resolution Spectral Modelling. Newport News, Virginia: GATS Inc. Retrieved on April 25, 2017, from http://www.spectralcalc.com/info/about.php

Peral, F., & Gallego, E. (2003). A study by ultraviolet spectroscopy on the self-association of diazines in aqueous solution. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 59(6), 1223- 1237.

Li, M., Daia, J. M., & Pengb, G. D. (2009, July). Thin gas cell with GRIN fiber lens for intra-cavity fiber laser gas sensors. In Proc. of SPIE Vol (Vol. 7382, pp. 73823Q-1).

Conde Portilla, O. M., García Barrio, S., Mirapeix Serrano, J. M., Echevarría Cuenca, J., Madruga Saavedra, F. J., & López Higuera, J. M. (2002, February). New optical cell design for pollutant detection. SPIE Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Han, Y., Liang, T., Yang, X. J., Ren, X. L., & Yin, Y. F. (2010, September). Research on optical air chamber of infrared gas sensor. In Pervasive Computing Signal Processing and Applications (PCSPA), 2010 First International Conference on (pp. 33-36). IEEE.

Salim, M. R., Yaacob, M., Marcus, T. C. E., David, M., Hussin, N., Ibrahim, M. H., ... & Lewis, E. (2015). Analysis of Optimized and Improved Low Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Reflective Mid-Infrared Gas Sensor. Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering), 73(3), 63-67.

Ida, N. (2014). Sensor, Actuators and their Interfaces: A Multidisciplinary Introductions. (1st eds). SciTech, Edison, NJ.

Holmen, J. P. (2012). Experimental Methods for Engineers. (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill, Manhattan, 5.

Marcus, T. C. E., Ibrahim, M. H., Ngajikin, N. H., and Azmi, A. I. (2015). Optical Path Length and Absorption Cross Section Optimization for High Sensitivity Ozone Concentration Measurement. Sensor and Actuators B: Chemical. 221, 570-575.

Salim, M. R., Yaacob, M., Ibrahim, M. H., Azmi, A. I., Ngajikin, N. H., Dooly, G., & Lewis, E. (2015). An optical spectroscopic based reflective sensor for CO2 measurement with signal to noise ratio improvement. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 17(5-6), 519-525.

Dooly, G., Mulrooney, J., Merlone-Borla, E., Flavia, G., Clifford, J., Fitzpatrick, C., & Lewis, E. (2008, May). In-situ monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Diesel Automobile using a Mid-Infrared Optical Fibre Based Point Sensor. In Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Proceedings, 2008. IMTC 2008. IEEE (pp. 1891-1894). IEEE.

Mulrooney, J., Clifford, J., Fitzpatrick, C., & Lewis, E. (2007). Detection of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre based sensor. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 136(1), 104-110.

Muda, R., Dooly, G., Clifford, J., Mulrooney, J., Flavia, G., MerloneBorla, E., ... & Lewis, E. (2009). Simulation and measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust emissions using an optical-fibre-based midinfrared point sensor. Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, 11(5), 054013


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ISSN: 2180-1843

eISSN: 2289-8131