Issues and Challenges of Sensor Technologies in Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) in Smartphones for Motion Tracking Applications

Nursabillilah Mohd Ali, GJ Ting, LQ Shiung, LW Theng, LC Ching, M Sulaiman, HNM Shah, MM Ghazaly, S Razali

Abstract


Following the popularity of smartphone, the needs for accurate motion tracking have grown rapidly. Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor has been commonly used in smartphones. Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) usually functions in motion sensing. In this review, we explained the concept of MEMS accelerometer, gyroscopes and magnetometer. We discussed the issues and challenges of MEMS sensor in smartphones for motion tracking application and ways to improve it. noise-full and drifting are issues related to angle estimation in IMU. Many types of the filter were applied to improve the angle estimation. Challenges in navigation and motion tracking are stated. The combination of IMU, a global positioning system (GPS) and MEMS pressure sensor can increase the accuracy of motion tracking efficiently. The conclusion of issues and challenges of MEMS sensor and improvements were also presented.

Keywords


Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS); Smartphone; Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU); Pressure Sensor; Global Positioning System (GPS);

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rai-Choudhury, Prosenjit. MEMS and MOEMS Technology and Applications. Vol. 85. Spie Press, 2000.

PRIME Faraday Partnership. An introduction to MEMS. 2002; pp. 1-7.

Tanigawa, Makoto, Henk Luinge, Linda Schipper, and Per Slycke. "Drift-free dynamic height sensor using MEMS IMU aided by MEMS pressure sensor." In Positioning, Navigation and Communication, 2008. WPNC 2008. 5th Workshop on, 2008, pp. 191-196.

El-Sheimy, N. "Emerging MEMS IMU and its impact on mapping applications." In Photogrammetric Week, vol. 9. 2009.

STMicroelectronic. MEMS and Sensors. Smart Motion tracking, IoT and enhanced user experience. April 2016.

Mourcou, Quentin, Anthony Fleury, Céline Franco, Frédéric Klopcic, and Nicolas Vuillerme. "Performance evaluation of smartphone inertial sensors measurement for range of motion." Sensors vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 23168-23187, 2015.

Abir, Jonathan, Stefano Longo, Paul Morantz, and Paul Shore. "Optimized estimator for real-time dynamic displacement measurement using accelerometers." Mechatronics vol. 39, pp. 1-11, 2016.

Bill Hammack. How Does An Accelerometer Work In A Smartphone. 2012

Paresh Gujarati. What is Accelerometer and how does it work on smartphones. 2013.

Jiménez, Samuel, Matthew OT Cole, and Patrick S. Keogh. "Vibration sensing in smart machine rotors using internal MEMS accelerometers." Journal of Sound and Vibration vol. 377, pp. 58-75, 2016.

Trusov, Alexander A. "Overview of MEMS gyroscopes: history, principles of operations, types of measurements." University of California, Irvine, USA, 2011.

Leszczynski, Matthew J. "Improving the performance of MEMS gyros via redundant measurements: theory and experiments." PhD diss., Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2014.

Xie, Huikai, and Gary K. Fedder. "Integrated microelectromechanical gyroscopes." Journal of aerospace engineering vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 65- 75, 2003.

Raman Madrewa. What is a gyroscope? How does it work?. 2015.

Burg, Aaron, Azeem Meruani, Bob Sandheinrich, and Michael Wickmann. "MEMS gyroscopes and their applications." Northwestern University, http://clifton. mech. northwestern. edu/~ me381/project/done/Gyroscope.pdf, 2004, [accessed 2013, January 9].

Cai, Yongyao, Yang Zhao, Xianfeng Ding, and James Fennelly. "Magnetometer basics for mobile phone applications." Electron. Prod.(Garden City, New York) vol. 54, no. 2, 2012.

Ron Kurtus. Lorentz Force form Magnetic Field. 2016.

Laghi, G., P. Minotti, and G. Langfelder. "Effect of stators geometry on the resonance sensitivity of capacitive MEMS." Procedia engineering vol. 120, pp. 294-297, 2015.

Łuczak, Sergiusz, and Waldemar Oleksiuk. "Increasing accuracy of tilt measurements." Engineering Mechanics vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 143-154, 2007.

Tsang, Chi Chiu. "Error reduction techniques for a MEMS accelerometer-based digital input device." PhD diss., Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2008.

Madgwick, S. An Efficient Orientation Filter for Inertial and Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Arrays; Technical Report; Report x-io and University of Bristol: Bristol, UK, 30 April 2010.

Greg Wekch, Gary Bishop. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter. 2001.

Hu, Zhongxu, and Barry Gallacher. "Extended Kalman filtering based parameter estimation and drift compensation for a MEMS rate integrating gyroscope." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical vol. 250, pp. 96-105, 2016.

Mourcou, Quentin, Anthony Fleury, Céline Franco, Frédéric Klopcic, and Nicolas Vuillerme. "Performance evaluation of smartphone inertial sensors measurement for range of motion." Sensors vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 23168-23187, 2015.

F.Landis Markley. Attitude estimation or quaternion estimation?. 2003.

Markley, F. Landis, and Daniele Mortari. "Quaternion attitude estimation using vector observations." Journal of the Astronautical Sciences vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 359-380, 2000.

Adhi. The phenomena of Gimbal Lock. 2013.

Guerrier, S., 2009, September. “Improving accuracy with multiple sensors: Study of redundant MEMS-IMU/GPS configurations.” In Proceedings of the 22nd international technical meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2009), pp. 3114-3121.

Manikandan, E., Karthigeyan, K.A. and James, K.I.A., “Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) based pressure sensor in barometric altimeter”. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 2 no. 8, pp.1-8, 2011.

Xia, H., Wang, X., Qiao, Y., Jian, J. and Chang, Y. “Using multiple barometers to detect the floor location of smart phones with built-in barometric sensors for indoor positioning”. Sensors, vol. 15 no. 4, pp.7857-7877, 2015


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ISSN: 2180-1843

eISSN: 2289-8131