Development of Low Cost HF Antenna for Amplitude Observation at Equatorial Region

J. Talib, A. Taat, A. N Dagang, M. H Jusoh, R. Umar, W. H Wan Hassan


In this paper the development of low cost antenna for High Frequency (HF) has been proposed. The proposed antenna is designed to operate from 3 MHz until 30 MHz for space weather observation. The antenna consists of small loop with primary and secondary loop. The primary and secondary purpose for radiating element while a lumped element being placed in series with the secondary loop for frequency tuning. Circumference size is taken from the 1/10 or 10% of wavelength, with circumference of 2.14 M and diameter of 0.64 M and able to capture the frequency at 15.21 and 15.34 MHz respectively. 4nec2 software has been used to bear out the simulation results. The antennas prototype has been designed, constructed and measured. The return loss measurement of antenna is -30dB, at 14 MHz. An omni directional radiation pattern measurement has been carried out at 15 MHz for signal transmitting.


High Frequency; Loop Antenna; Space Weather;

Full Text:



Q.M. Lu, “Space Physics And Space Weather,” Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 56(12), Pp. 1173, April 2011.

M. Johnson, G. Gorospe, J. Landry and A. Schuster, "Review of mitigation technologies for terrestrial power grids against space weather effects", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 82, pp. 382-391, 2016.

The University of Texas, “the earth’s ionosphere 2015 [Online] Available: e.

Zuccheretti, Enrico. "Ionospheric vertical radio soundings." INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF SPACE SCIENCE; 2008 Course on: Geomagnetism and Ionosphere, 2008.

Baskaradas, James Arokiasami, et al. "Description of ionospheric disturbances observed by Vertical Ionospheric Sounding at 3 MHz." Annals of Geophysics 57.1, 2014.

G. Vertogradov and E. Vertogradova, "The investigation of ionospheric response to total eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 based on HF oblique sounding data", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol. 147, pp. 28-36, 2016.

Yates S.” Small Transmitting Loop Antennas”, 2013. [Online]. Available:

A. Boswell, A. Tyler and A. White, "Performance of a small loop antenna in the 3-10 MHz band", IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 51-56, 2005.

P. Bevelacqua, "S-Parameters for Antennas (S11, S12, ...)",, 2017. [Online]. Available:

F. Rumsey and T. McCormick, Sound and recording, 5th ed. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2012.

C. Balanis, Antenna theory, 4th ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell, 2005.

M.Prior-Janes, Digital HF communications for autonomous instrumentation in the polar regions, 1st ed. University of Leicester, 2011.

R. Hasse, W. Hunsicker, K. Naishadham, A. Elseherbeni and D. Kajfez, "Analysis and design of a partitioned circular loop antenna for omni- directional radiation", 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), 2011.

N. Blaunstein and E. Plohotniuc, Ionosphere and applied aspects of radio communication and radar, 1st ed. Boca Raton: Auerbach, 2008.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

ISSN: 2180-1843

eISSN: 2289-8131