Preparation of Hydrous Ruthenium Oxide/Activated Carbon Electrode and Its Supercapacitive Performance in 6 M KOH

M. A. A. Mohd Abid, R.N.A.R. Seman, S.M. Effendi


Hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2) and activated carbon (AC) denoted as RuO2/AC composite electrodes were prepared by combining sol–gel and conventional slurry processing techniques. In this paper, several different compositions of composite electrode slurries were fabricated using RuO2 and AC powders. Benefits from the combined advantages of both RuO2 and AC in such a unique structure were the RuO2/AC composite electrode supercapacitors exhibited the specific capacitance (5.10 F g-1 for RuO2 50 wt%) and also have good cycling stability. These findings demonstrated the importance and great potential of RuO2/AC composites in the development of the energy-storage system especially for the high power supercapacitor electrode.

Full Text:



P. Simon and Y. Gogotsi, “Materials for electrochemical capacitors,” Nature Materials, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 845-854, 2008.

H. Chen, T. Cong, W. Yang, C. Tan, Y. Li and Y. Ding, “Progress in electrical energy storage system: A critical review,” Progress in Natural Science, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 291-312, 2009.

O. Y. Joon, J. J. Yoo, Y. I. Kim, J. K. Yoon, H. N. Yoon, J-H. Kim and S. B. Park, "Oxygen functional groups and electrochemical capacitive behavior of incompletely reduced graphene oxides as a thin-film electrode of supercapacitor," Electrochimica Acta, vol. 116, pp. 118-128, 2014.

T. M. Masikhwa, F. Barzegar, J. K. Dangbegnon, A. Bello, M. J. Madito, D. Momodu and N. Manyala, “Asymmetric supercapacitor based on VS2 nanosheets and activated carbon materials,” RSC Advances, vol. 6, no. 45, pp. 38990-39000, 2016.

R. N. A. R. Seman, M. A. Azam and M. A. Mohamed, “Highly efficient vertically-aligned carbon nanotube growth on Fe-Ni based metal alloy foils for supercapacitor,” Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 045016-045024, 2016.

H. Yoo, J. Jang, J. Ryu, Y. Park and S. Oh, “Impedance analysis of porous carbon electrodes to predict rate capability of electric double-layer capacitors,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 267, pp. 411-420, 2014.

N. Jha, E. Bekyarova, P. Ramesh, M. E. Itkis and R. C. Haddon, “Ruthenium oxide-single walled carbon nanotube composite based high energy supercapacitor,” in International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials & Emerging Engineering Technologies, New Delhi, India, 2013, pp. 436-439.

R. N. A. R. Seman, M. A. Azam and A. A. Mohamad, “Systematic gap analysis of carbon nanotube-based lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 75, pp. 644-659, 2017.

K. Wang, L. Li and X. Wu, “Synthesis of active carbon and ruthenium oxide for electrochemical performance,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 8, pp. 6574–6578, 2013.

R. Warren, F. Sammoura, F. Tounsi, M. Sanghadasa and L. Lin, “Highly active ruthenium oxide coating via ALD and electrochemical activation in supercapacitor applications,” Journal of Material Chemical A, vol. 3, no. 30, pp. 15568-15575, 2015

M. A. Azam, N. H. Jantan, N. Dorah, R. N. A. R. Seman, N. S. A. Manaf, T. I. T. Kudin and M. Z. A. Yahya, “Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF6 electrolyte,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 69, pp. 20–23, 2015.

Z. Z. Chang, B. J. Yu and C. Y. Wang, “Lignin-derived hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitors,” Journal of Solid State Electrochemical, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1405-1412, 2016.

Z. S. Wu, D. W. Wang, W. Ren, J. Zhao, G. Zhao, F. Li and H. M. Cheng, “Anchoring hydrous RuO2 on graphene sheets for high performance electrochemical capacitors,” Advanced Functional Material, vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 3595-1602, 2010.

K. S. Yang, C. H. Kim and B. H. Kim, “Preparation and electrochemical properties of RuO2-containing activated carbon nanofiber composites with hollow cores,” Electrochimic Acta, vol. 174, pp. 290-296, 2015.

H. Kim and B. N. Popov, “Characterization of hydrous ruthenium oxide/carbon nanocomposite supercapacitors prepared by a colloidal method,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 52-61, 2002.

F. Z. Amir, V. H. Pham and J. H. Dickerson, “Facile synthesis of ultra-small ruthenium oxide nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors,” RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 83, pp. 67638-67645, 2015.

© Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology